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Instructions for Authors

  • Aims and scope of journal
    International Journal of Pain (IJP) is the official scientific English-language journal of the Korean Association for the Study of Pain. IJP is a multidisciplinary journal that publishes papers of the high quality and significance in the whole range of pain research. The mission of the journal is to improve the care of patients in pain by providing a forum for clinical researchers, basic scientists, clinicians, and other health professionals to publish original research. In addition to primary research, International Journal of Pain publishes reviews, original articles, case reports, letters to the editor, and editorials. International Journal of Pain is published semiannually on the June 30 and December 31.
  • Editorial process
    The overview of the journal’s manuscript decision process includes submission, editorial decision on whether the paper should be reviewed, peer review, revision, acceptance in principle, final submission and acceptance, proofs and print publication. Before submitting a paper, authors should consult our general guide for manuscript preparation and submission, which includes information on article formats, journal style, and figure preparation tips.
  • Language
    It is recommended that manuscripts should be primarily written in English. However, manuscripts in Korean can be submitted if Citations, Acknowledgements, Tables, Figures and References are written in English and are translated in English after the final acceptance for publication. Medical terminology should be written in English only even in the manuscript written in Korean based on the recent edition of the Dorland’ Illustrated Medical Dictionary.
  • Submission of manuscript
    Any researchers in the world can submit manuscripts if the scope of the manuscript is appropriate. Authors are requested to submit their papers electronically by using online manuscript submission system available at: http://www.painresearch.or.kr/. Authors, reviewers, and editors send and receive all correspondences on this system. International journal of Pain follows the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals: Writing and Editing for Biomedical Publication available from http://www.icmje.org/ if otherwise not described below.
  • Peer review process
    Manuscripts are reviewed by the Editorial Office to make certain that the submission contains all parts. The Editorial Office will not accept a submission if the author has not supplied all parts of the manuscript, as outlined in this document. Manuscripts are then forwarded to the Editor−in−Chief. If the manuscript appears meritorious and appropriate for the Journal, the Editor−in−Chief assigns the manuscript to the appropriate two or three experts of corresponding field for peer review. Editor−in−Chief, weighing the views of the reviewers and his or her own impressions of the manuscript, forwards a decision letter to the Editorial Office. This decision letter is then sent to the author by e-mail. Only three versions of the paper are permitted (i.e., the first submission and two revisions). If the concerns of the reviewers are not satisfactorily met by the second revision, it is at the discretion of Editorial Board whether or not to continue with the review process. Editorial Board will make a final decision on the approval for publication of submitted manuscripts and can request any further corrections, revisions, and deletions of the article text if necessary. Statistical editing is also done if the data needs professional statistical review by a statistician. Review and publication processes not described in the Instructions for Authors, will be incorporated into the Editorial Policy Statements approved by the Council of Science Editors Board of Directors available at: http://www.councilscienceeditors.org/.
  • Proofs
    Authors should keep a copy of their manuscripts as proofs will be sent to them without manuscripts. Authors will receive proofs by e-mail. The corrected proofs must be returned within 2 week after receipt by e-mail. If the Publisher receives no reply, the assumption will be made that there are no errors to correct and the article will be published after in-house correction.
  • Fee for publication
    Manuscripts accepted for publication are free from page charges.
  • Copyright
    The copyright of published manuscripts is held by the Korean Association for the Study of Pain. The authors must remember that the use of data, tables, figures, or videos (except for lectures) published in IJP without written permission of the copyright holder is plagiarism, even if they are taken from the authors’ own manuscripts. This statement is consistent with the “Creative Commons (Attribution-Noncommercial)” code (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/us/). The corresponding author must send a signed copyright transfer and author consent form to the Editorial Office by checking the copyright transfer form before manuscripts can be published. Copyright transfer and author consent forms can be found on the IJP online submission page (http://painresearch.or.kr/submission). The copyright transfer includes images of patients, whether in artwork or video format. The Methods section should state that informed consent for such images to be published was obtained from the involved subjects. Documentation proving this does not have to be sent to the Editorial Office, but it should be kept in case it is requested.
For the policies on the research and publication ethics not stated in these instructions, Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals available at:
https://www.kamje.or.kr/board/view?b_name=bo_publication&bo_id=13&per_page= or ‘Guidelines on good publication available at: http://www.publicationethics.org.uk/guidelines can be applied.
  • Conflict-of-interest statement
    Conflicts of interest must be disclosed in all submissions to International journal of Pain including General Articles, Case Reports, Review Articles, Medical Intelligence Articles, Special Articles and Editorials. Authors must define all funding sources supporting their work or its authors, and disclose commercial associations that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the work submitted. Consultancies, equity interests, or patent-licensing arrangements should also be noted at submission.
  • Statement of informed consent
    Human experimentation must conform to ethical standards, and be approved by the appropriate Institutional Review Board (IRB). A statement concerning IRB approval and consent procedures must appear at the beginning of the Methods section. Any systematic data gathering effort in patients or volunteers must be approved by an IRB or adhere to appropriate local/national regulations. Authors may be questioned about the details of consent forms or the consent process. On occasion, the Editor-in-Chief may request a copy of the approved IRB application from the author.
  • Language
    It is recommended that manuscripts should be primarily written in English. However, manuscripts in Korean can be submitted if Citations, Acknowledgements, Tables, Figures and References are written in English and are translated in English after the final acceptance for publication. Medical terminology should be written in English only even in the manuscript written in Korean based on the recent edition of the Dorland’ Illustrated Medical Dictionary.
  • Statement of human and animal right
    Clinical research should be done in accordance with the Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects outlined in the Helsinki Declaration in 1975 (revised 2000). Clinical studies that do not meet the Helsinki Declaration will not be considered for publication. Human subjects should not be identifiable. Patients’ name, initial, hospital number, date of birth, or other protected healthcare information should not be disclosed. For animal subjects, research should be performed based on National or Institutional Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the ethical treatment of all experimental animals should be observed.
  • Authorship
    Authorship credit should be based on 1) substantial contributions to concept and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet the above three conditions. One of the authors should be designated to receive correspondence and proofs, and the appropriate address indicated. This author should take responsibility for keeping all other named authors informed of the paper’s progress. In addition, the corresponding author must ensure that there is no one else who fulfils the criteria but has not been included as an author. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to ensure that authorship is agreed among the study’s workers, contributors of additional data and other interested parties, before submission of the manuscript.
  • Originality and duplicate publication
    All submitted manuscripts should be original and should not be considered by other scientific journals for publication at the same time. No part of the accepted manuscript should be duplicated in another scientific journal without permission by the Editorial Board. If duplicate publications related to the papers of this journal are detected, sanctions against authors range from requesting their institutions to assess the facts, requesting a Letter to the Editor-in-Chief acknowledging the error and voluntarily withdrawing a manuscript, to a ban on publication in International journal of Pain up to 3 years.
  • Secondary publication
    It is possible to republish manuscripts if the manuscripts satisfy the condition of secondary publication of the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals available at: http://www.icmje.org.
  • Word processors and format of manuscript
    Manuscripts should be submitted in file format of Microsoft Word / Hangeul Word Processor. Manuscripts should be typed in A4 size paper or “standard US Paper” (width 8.5 in.; length 11 in.) with double spaced, and font size of 10 with margins of 2.54 cm (1 in.) on each side, and 2.54 cm (1 in.) for top and bottom end.
  • Abbreviation of terminology
    Abbreviations should be avoided. When used, full expression of the abbreviation followed by the abbreviated word in parentheses should be given at the first use. For example: patient controlled analgesia (PCA). After that, “PCA” can be used instead of “patient-controlled analgesia”. However, common abbreviations may be used such as DNA. The criteria whether an abbreviation can be used is determined by the existence of a MeSH subject heading at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=mesh.
  • Word spacing
    • 1) Leave one space on each side for arithmetic marks.
           Ex) 24 ± 2.5, 20 x 25
    • 2) Leave no space for hyphen between words.
           Ex) intra-operative
    • 3) Leave one space after “,”, “.”, “;” and “:”.
    • 4) Using parenthesis or square bracket leaves one space each side.
    • 5) Brackets in parenthesis, apply square brackets.
           Ex) ([ ])
    • 6) Manuscripts in Korean should keep the rules of Korean spelling (http://korean.go.kr/).
  • Quoted documents and square brackets
    • 1) If quoted document has two authors, write as “Nahm and Kim”. If there are more than 3 authors, apply ‘et al’ at the end of the first author's surname.
           Ex) Kim et al [1]
    • 2) Square bracket of quotation document should be applied at the last of the last word.
           Ex) Lumbar MBB has gained popularity for the diagnosis and treatment of lumbar zygapophysial joint pain [1,5] and for the selection of patients suitable for radiofrequency medial branch neurotomy [1,6].
    • 3) Apply square brackets before comma or period.
           Ex) .... is reported [1],
    • 4) Several or coupled superscripts can be written as [1,3,5] or [1-6].
  • Arrangement of manuscript
    Article should be organized in the order of title page, abstract, introduction, materials and methods, discussion, acknowledgements, references, tables, figures, and figure legends. Each new section title should begin on a new page. Conclusion should be included in the discussion section. Number pages consecutively, beginning with the title page. Page numbers should be centered at the bottom of the page. For survey-based clinical studies, the original survey document does not need to be included in the body of the manuscript but may be supplemented as Appendix.
  • Organization of manuscript
    • 1) Clinical or experimental research
      • (1) Cover page

          ∙ Title

        • Title should be concise and precise. Capitalize only the first word of the title. Drug names in the title should be written as generic name not brand name.
        • ∙ Authors and affiliations

        • The name of authors is included first name, middle name and last name for each author. If several authors, and institutions are listed, it should be clearly indicated with which department and institution each author is affiliated.
          If one author has multiple departments, mark footnotes on the name.
               Ex) Gil-Dong Hong1,2 / 1institution and 2department
        • ∙ Running title

        • Running title of no more than 40 characters, including spaces, should be included. If inappropriate, editorial board may revise it.
        • ∙ Corresponding Author

        • Name, address, telephone number, FAX number, and e-mail address of author responsible for manuscript correspondence should be described.
        • ∙ Previous presentation at conferences

        • Title of the conferences, date of presentation and the location of the conferences may be described.
      • (2) Abstract
        All manuscripts should contain a structured abstract written only in English. Provide abstract of no more than 250 words. It should contain four subsections: Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Do not include citations in the abstract. A list of key words, with a maximum of six items, should be included at the end of the abstract and arranged alphabetically. The selection of Key Words should be from MeSH (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=mesh) and should be written in lower case. Separate each word by comma (,) and mark period (.) at the end of the last word.
             Ex) Key Words: allodynia, hyperalgesia, incision, postoperative pain.
             Ex) Key Words: fentanyl, GABA, meperidine, methadone, morphine-6-glucuronide.
      • (3) Introduction
        The introduction should address the purpose of the article concisely, and include background reports relevant to the purpose of the paper.
      • (4) Materials and methods
        Materials and methods section should include sufficient details of the design, subjects, and methods of the article in order, as well as the data analysis methods and control of bias in the study. Enough details need to be addressed in the methodology section of an experimental study so that it can be further replicated by others.
        When reporting experiments with human or animal subjects, the authors should indicate whether they received an approval from the Institutional Review Board for the study. When reporting experiments with animal subjects, the authors should indicate whether the handling of the animals was supervised by Institutional Board for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Demographic data should be included in materials and methods section if applicable. As a rule, sub-section titles are not recommended.
        When preparing “Methods,” ensure correct use of the terms sex (when reporting biological factors) and gender (identity, psychosocial or cultural factors). Unless inappropriate, report the sex and/or gender of study participants, the sex of animals or cells, and describe the methods used to determine sex or gender. If the study involved an exclusive population (only one sex, for example), authors should justify why, except in obvious cases (e.g., prostate cancer). Authors should define how they determined race or ethnicity, and justify their relevance.

          ∙ Units

        • Laboratory information should be reported in International System of Units [SI] available at:
          https://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/ or https://physics.nist.gov/cuu/pdf/sp811.pdf.
          Exceptions
          • ① The unit for volume is “L”, others “dl, ml, or μl”.
                 Ex) 1 L, 5 ml
          • ② The units for pressure are mmHg or cmH2O.
          • ③ Use Celsius for temperature
          • ④ Units for concentration are “M, mM, or μM”.
          • ⑤ When more than two items are presented, diagonal slashes are acceptable for simple units. Negative exponents should not be used
                 Ex) mg/kg/min [O], mg∙kg-1∙min-1 [X]
          • ⑥ Leave one space between number and units.
                 Ex) 5 mmHg, Exception) 5%, 36oC
          • ⑦ Units of time
                 Ex) hour: 1 h = 60 min = 3600 s, day: 1 d = 24 h = 86400 s
        • ∙ Machines and equipments

        • Provide model name and manufacturer’s name, city, (state,) and country.
               Ex) SynchroMed II Drug Infusion System (Models 8637-20, Medtronic, Inc., Fridley, (MN,) USA)
          Do not put “.” between the words when writing name of countries.
               Ex) U.S.A. [X], USA [O]
          For drug names, use generic name. If brand name should be used, insert it in parentheses after the generic name.
          ProvideⓇ or TM as a superscript and address manufacturer’s name, city, (state,) and country.
        • ∙ Ions

        •      Ex) Na+ [O], Mg2+ [O], Mg++ [X], Mg+2 [X]
        • ∙ Statistics

        • Describe precisely the methods of statistical analysis and computer programs so that reader can reproduce the same results if original data are available. Mean and standard deviation should be described as mean ± SD, also mean and standard error as mean ± SEM. P value should be described like P < 0.05
      • (5) Results
        Results should be presented in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations giving the main or most important findings first. Do not repeat all the data in the tables or illustrations in the text; emphasize or summarize only the most important observations. Results can be sectioned by sub-section titles, but should not be numbered. Citation of tables and figures should be provided as Table 1, and Fig. 1.
      • (6) Discussion
        Discussion should be described to emphasize the new and important aspects of the study including the conclusions. Do not repeat the results in detail or other information given in the Introduction or the Results section. Describe the conclusions according to the purpose of the study but avoid unqualified statements that are not adequately supported by the data. Conclusion may be stated briefly at the last paragraph of Discussion section.
      • (7) Acknowledgements
        Source(s) of funding, including foundations, institutions, pharmaceutical and device manufacturers, private companies, or intramural departmental sources should be disclosed. Persons or institutes who contributed the papers but not enough to be co-authors may be introduced.
      • (8) References
        The description of the journal reference follows the followings. Otherwise it follows the NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (Patrias K. Citing medicine: the NLM style guide for authors, editors, and publishers [Internet]. 2nd ed. Wendling DL, technical editor. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US); 2007 [updated 2009 Jan 14; cited Year Month Day]. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/citingmedicine).
        • ∙ References should be obviously related to documents and should not exceed 50. References should be numbered consecutively in the order they are first mentioned in the text. Provide superscript number in the body text section. All the references should be stated in English, including author, title, and name of journal etc.
        • ∙ If necessary, Editorial Board may request the original document of references.
        • ∙ Journal title should be listed according to the List of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE. Available at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/serials/lji.html or List of KoreaMed Journal (http://koreamed.org).
        • ∙ Six authors can be listed. If more than 6 authors are listed only list 6 names with “et al”.
        • ∙ Provide start and final page numbers of cited reference.
        • ∙ Abstracts are not allowed as references.
        • ∙ Description format
        • Regular journal

            Author name: title of journal. Name of journal published year; volume: page-page

          • Ex) Han HC: Pain: is it equal for both sexes? J Korean Pain Res Soc 2009; 19: 5-9.
          • Ex) Kim C, Han KR: Efficacy and safety of high concentration lidocaine for trigeminal nerve block in patients with trigeminal neuralgia. Int J Clin Pract 2008; 62: 248-54.
          • Ex) Lee CJ, Kim YC, Shin JH, Nahm FS, Lee HM, Choi YS, et al: Intravascular injection in lumbar medial branch block: a prospective evaluation of 1433 injections. Anesth Analg 2008; 106: 1274-8.
        • Monographs

            Author: Book name. Edition. Place, press. Published year, pp (start page)-(End page) If reference page is only one page mark “p”. Mark if it is over second edition.

          • Ex) Nuwer MR: Evoked potential monitoring in the operating room. 2nd ed. New York, Raven Press. 1986, pp 136-71.
        • Translated document cannot be used as references. The original document should be provided as reference.
        • Any separate author of chapter should be provided.
          • Ex) Raja SN, Meyer RA, Ringkamp M, Capmbell JN: Peripheral neural mechanisms of nociception. In: Textbook of pain. 4th ed. Edited by Wall PD, Melzack R: Edinburgh, Churchill Livingstone. 1999, pp 11-57.
        • Secondary citations that may occur when an author takes and uses information from another source cannot be allowed as references.
        • Electronic documents

            ∙ Journal articles in electronic format

          • Ex) Grainge MJ, Seth R, Guo L, Neal KR, Coupland C, Vryenhoef P, et al: Cervical human papillomavirus screening among older women. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2005 Nov [2005 Nov 25]. Available at https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/11/11/05-0575_article.
          • ∙ Monograph in electronic format

          • Ex) Reeves JRT, Maibach H: CDI, Clinical dermatology illustrated [monograph on CD-ROM]. CMEA Multimedia Group producers. 2nd ed. Version 2.0 San Diego: CMEA; 1995.
          • ∙ Computer files

          • Ex) Hemodynamic III: the ups and downs of hemodynamics [computer program]. Version 2.2 Orlando (FL).
        • PhD thesis

            Author: Title of thesis (kind of degree). Place: School, Year.

          • Ex) Youssef NM: School adjustment of children with congenital heart disease (Doctoral dissertation). Pittsburgh (PA): Univ. of Pittsburgh, 1988.
        • In press
          • Ex) Leshner AI: Molecular mechanisms of cocaine addiction. N Engl J Med 1996 [in press]
      • (9) Table
        • ∙ Type or print each table on a separate sheet of paper.
        • ∙ Number tables consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text.
        • ∙ Supply a brief title as a short phrase for each.
        • ∙ Tables should be more than 4 rows and should not exceed 1 page.
        • ∙ Except titles and first letters, all the text in the tables should be provided in lower case.
        • ∙ In demographic data, sex would be provided in M/F, and age in yr. Data of year, weight, height, and any other units would be provided in one decimal place.
        • ∙ “±” sign in upper column of table should be lined up with lower column.
        • ∙ Footnotes should be provided consecutively in the order of citation in table.
        • ∙ Define all abbreviations except they approved by the International System of Units. Define all abbreviations every time those are repeated.
        • ∙ Marks for footnote should be given in order of *, †, ‡, §, ∥, ¶, **, ††, ‡‡.... When marks are used to explain items of the table, indicate them with superscripts.
      • (10) Figures and illustrations
        • ∙ Figures and photographs should be submitted in jpg or tif files. Submit files of figures and photographs separately from the text of paper.
        • ∙ Number figures in “Fig. Arabic numerals” in the order of their citation. (ex. Fig. 1)
        • ∙ Photographs should be submitted individually. If figure 1 is divided into A, B, C and D, do not combine it into one, but submit each of them separately. Authors should submit line drawing in black and white.
        • ∙ In horizontal and vertical legends, the letter of the first English word should be capitalized.
        • ∙ Connection between numbers should be done by “-“ not “~” with no spaces before or after the hyphen. (ex. 2-4)
        • ∙ Figures should be explained briefly in footnotes. Format is the same as table format.
        • ∙ An individual should not be recognizable in photographs or X-ray films unless written consent of the subject has been obtained and is provided at the time of submission.
        • ∙ Pathological samples should be pictured with measuring stick.
      • (11) Legends for figures and photographs
        • ∙ Figure and photo legends should be on a separate page following bibliography.
        • ∙ Instructions are same as table instructions.
    • 2) Case Reports
      Case reports describe unique cases that make an important teaching point or scientific observation. Case reports may describe unusual and instructive cases, novel anesthetic techniques, novel use of equipment, or new information on diseases of importance to pain medicine.
      • (1) Cover page: Proportional to clinical and experimental studies.
      • (2) Abstract: Should not be divided into sections and should not exceed 150 words.
      • (3) Introduction: “Introduction” section should not be divided. Briefly describe case and background without title.
      • (4) Case report: Describe only clinical statement which is directly related to diagnosis and management of pain.
      • (5) Discussion: Briefly discuss the case, and state conclusion at the end of the case. Do not structure conclusion section separately.
      • (6) References: Do not exceed 20 references.
      • (7) Tables and figures: Proportional to clinical and experimental studies.
    • 3) Reviews
      Review articles synthesize previously published material into an integrated presentation of our current understanding of a topic. Review articles should describe aspects of a topic in which scientific consensus exists, as well as aspects that remain controversial and are the subject of ongoing scientific disagreement and research. Review articles should include unstructured abstract of less than 250 words (in English). Figures and tables should be provided in English. Body text should not exceed A4 or “standard US Paper” pages, and figures and tables should be equal to or less than 6.
    • 4) Letters to the Editor
      Letters to the Editor should include brief constructive comments concerning previously published articles or interesting cases. Letters to the editor should be submitted no more than 3 months after the paper has been published.
      • ∙ Cover pages should be provided proportional to clinical or experimental study. Omit page title. Corresponding author should be the first author.
      • ∙ Body text should not exceed 1,000 words and should have references.
      • ∙ Letters may be edited by the Editorial Board and if necessary, a response by the author of subjected paper may be provided.
    • 5) Book reviews and announcements
      Book reviews as well as News of Scientific Societies and scientific meeting dates in Korea or abroad can be included. Their formats will be same as the letters to the editor.
  • Recently revised Instructions for Authors will be applied from the manuscript submitted from January 15, 2020.
The Korean Association for the Study of Pain

Vol.14 No.2
December 2023

pISSN 2233-4793
eISSN 2233-4807

Frequency: Semi-Annual

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